Author : Cliff Goddard and Anna Wierzbicka
Publication date : 2017
Bibliographical references :
Goddard, Cliff and Wierzbicka, Anna. 2014. Semantic fieldwork and lexical universals. Studies in Language 38(1), 80–127.
" This list can be used as an aid to identifying exponents of semantic primes and for eliciting a semantically based sample of the core lexicogrammar of any language " (Goddard and Wierzbicka, 2017).
A list made up for the linguist to identify the different exponents of semantic primes within a language. This list may be used for any language the researcher is interested in. It is divided in 17 major categories of semantic primes. However, there are some overlaps between the sections. "They can be used in a variety of ways. For example, one can use them in direct elicitation, embed them in mini narratives or scenarios as stimuli or prompts for informants, or seek to locate matching or comparable examples in natural texts" (Goddard and Wierzbicka, 2017).
- SOMEONE~WHO, SOMETHING~THING~WHAT, PEOPLE, BODY
- PARTS, KINDS
- THIS, THE SAME, OTHER~ELSE
- ONE, TWO, SOME, ALL, MANY~MUCH, LITTLE~FEW
- GOOD, BAD
- THINK, KNOW, WANT, DON’T WANT
- FEEL, SEE, HEAR
- SAY, WORDS, TRUE
- DO, HAPPEN, MOVE, TOUCH
- THERE IS, (IS) MINE
- BE (SOMEWHERE), BE (SOMEONE/SOMETHING)
- LIVE, DIE
- TIME~WHEN, NOW, BEFORE, AFTER, A LONG TIME, A SHORT TIME, FOR SOME TIME, IN ONE MOMENT
- PLACE~WHERE, HERE, NEAR, FAR, ABOVE, BELOW, ON (THIS) SIDE, INSIDE
- BECAUSE, IF, MAYBE, CAN
- VERY, MORE
The list contains 'canonical sentences', and was first used in the Semantic and Lexical Universals project (Goddard and Wierzbicka eds., 1994).
"It is not regarded as final and suggestions are welcome for its improvement" (Goddard and Wierzbicka, 2017).