Iamitives vs. Nondums (already vs. not-yet) plus other phasal markers as lexico-grammatical categories

TUL Questionnaires

Author : Ljuba Veselinova

Publication date : 2020

Questionnaire URL : http://bit.ly/2RYMXlg

Bibliographical references :

Dahl, Östen. 1985. Tense and Aspect Systems. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd.

Olsson, Bruno. 2013. Iamitives: Perfects in Southeast Asia and beyond. Stockholm: Stockholm University M.A.

Veselinova, Ljuba and Maud Devos. (forthcoming). Not-yet expressions as a lexico-grammatical category in Bantu languages. To appear in Raija Kramer (ed.) Phasal polarity expressions in African languages. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.


The goal of this questionnaire is to elicit data on iamitive, a lexico-grammatical category, related to but not identical to the perfect and also not-yet markers/nondums which are often described as the counterpart of iamitives in the negative domain. Data from Indonesian are use to illustrate both:

(1) Pelamar tidak  harus sudah  menikah

     Applicants NEG must IAMITIVE marry

    'Applicants do not need to be married'


(2) Pelamar harus belum menikah

     Applicants must NOT YET marry

   'Applicants must not yet be married'


(3) aku tiada berkata begitu

     I NEG say like.that

   ' I did not say that'

(4) mereka belum berangkat

    they not.yet leave

   'They haven't left yet'


In Indonesian the nondum marker belum ‘not yet’, replaces both the standard negation (SN) marker tidak and the iamitive marker sudah, also glossed ‘already’. Thus it forms an opposition in the domain of negation but also an opposition between the negative and the affirmative domain. My goal with this questionnaire to collect as much information as possible on this undestudied category.

Protocol summary

This is a translation questionnaire. It was designed following similar questionnaires in Dahl (1985) and Olsson (2013). Questions (Q1) through (Q36) taken from Olsson (2013); this is in order to check whether a category such as iamitive exists in the investigated languages and whether it contrasts with a not-yet/nondum gram. I would like to thank Bruno Olsson for his comments on the design of the current questionnaire as well.

Please translate the bold faced text only. In the hope to avoid interference from English, citation forms rather than actual forms are used for all predicates to be translated. Please provide morpheme by morpheme glossing, if possible.


To identify your languages, please provide one of the codes below.

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If your language is not listed in either the Ethnologue (http://www.ethnologue.com) or the Glottolog (http://glottolog.org), please notify me at ljuba@ling.su.se.

Development context

This questionnaire was designed as part of the data collection procedure for my current grant whereby I study tense-aspect categories restricted to the domain of negation. The not-yet category is grossly understudied so data triangulation is vital for this project: I use grammars, parallel text and data elicitation. This questionnaire is used for the latter.

The proejct title is Expectations shaping grammar: searching for the link between tense-aspect and negation, funded by the Swedish Research Council/Vetenskapsråder, https://vr.se Grant 2016-01045 to Ljuba Veselinova.

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